Generic selectors
Exact matches only
Search in title
Search in content
Post Type Selectors
Search in posts
Search in pages
Filter by Categories
Abstracts
Cardiovascular, Case Report
Cardiovascular, Commentary
Cardiovascular, Editorial
Cardiovascular, Guest Editorial
Cardiovascular, Images in Cardiology
Cardiovascular, Interventional Round
Cardiovascular, Original Article
Cardiovascular, Perspective Review
Cardiovascular, Preface
Cardiovascular, Review Article
Cardiovascular, Student’s Corner
Case Report
Case Report, Cardiovascular
Case Reports
Case Series, Cardiovascular
Clinical Discussion
Clinical Rounds
CPC
Current Issue
Debate
Dedication
Editorial
Editorial Cardiovascular
Editorial, From the Publisher’s Desk
Expert Comments
Expert's Opinion
Genetic Autopsy
Genetics Autopsy
Image in Cardiology
Images in Cardiology
Images in Cardiology, Cardiovascular
Interventional Round
Interventional Round, Cardiovascular
Interventional Rounds
Letter to Editor
Letter to the Editor
Media and news
Original Article
Original Article, Cardiovascular
Practice in Medicine
Preface
Review Article
Review Article, Cardiovascular
Scientific Paper
Short Communication
Student's Corner
Supplementary
Supplemetary
WINCARS Activities
Generic selectors
Exact matches only
Search in title
Search in content
Post Type Selectors
Search in posts
Search in pages
Filter by Categories
Abstracts
Cardiovascular, Case Report
Cardiovascular, Commentary
Cardiovascular, Editorial
Cardiovascular, Guest Editorial
Cardiovascular, Images in Cardiology
Cardiovascular, Interventional Round
Cardiovascular, Original Article
Cardiovascular, Perspective Review
Cardiovascular, Preface
Cardiovascular, Review Article
Cardiovascular, Student’s Corner
Case Report
Case Report, Cardiovascular
Case Reports
Case Series, Cardiovascular
Clinical Discussion
Clinical Rounds
CPC
Current Issue
Debate
Dedication
Editorial
Editorial Cardiovascular
Editorial, From the Publisher’s Desk
Expert Comments
Expert's Opinion
Genetic Autopsy
Genetics Autopsy
Image in Cardiology
Images in Cardiology
Images in Cardiology, Cardiovascular
Interventional Round
Interventional Round, Cardiovascular
Interventional Rounds
Letter to Editor
Letter to the Editor
Media and news
Original Article
Original Article, Cardiovascular
Practice in Medicine
Preface
Review Article
Review Article, Cardiovascular
Scientific Paper
Short Communication
Student's Corner
Supplementary
Supplemetary
WINCARS Activities
Generic selectors
Exact matches only
Search in title
Search in content
Post Type Selectors
Search in posts
Search in pages
Filter by Categories
Abstracts
Cardiovascular, Case Report
Cardiovascular, Commentary
Cardiovascular, Editorial
Cardiovascular, Guest Editorial
Cardiovascular, Images in Cardiology
Cardiovascular, Interventional Round
Cardiovascular, Original Article
Cardiovascular, Perspective Review
Cardiovascular, Preface
Cardiovascular, Review Article
Cardiovascular, Student’s Corner
Case Report
Case Report, Cardiovascular
Case Reports
Case Series, Cardiovascular
Clinical Discussion
Clinical Rounds
CPC
Current Issue
Debate
Dedication
Editorial
Editorial Cardiovascular
Editorial, From the Publisher’s Desk
Expert Comments
Expert's Opinion
Genetic Autopsy
Genetics Autopsy
Image in Cardiology
Images in Cardiology
Images in Cardiology, Cardiovascular
Interventional Round
Interventional Round, Cardiovascular
Interventional Rounds
Letter to Editor
Letter to the Editor
Media and news
Original Article
Original Article, Cardiovascular
Practice in Medicine
Preface
Review Article
Review Article, Cardiovascular
Scientific Paper
Short Communication
Student's Corner
Supplementary
Supplemetary
WINCARS Activities
View/Download PDF

Translate this page into:

Editorial
5 (
02
); 100-101
doi:
10.1055/s-0040-1713943

Will Resting Full-Cycle Ratio Substitute Fractional Flow Reserve

Department of Cardiology, Yashoda Hospital, Secunderabad, India
Address for correspondence Dr. M.S. Aditya, MD, DM Department of Radio-Diagnosis, Consultant Cardiologist, Yashoda Hospital Secunderabad India aditya.ms11@gmail.com
Licence
This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
Disclaimer:
This article was originally published by Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Private Ltd. and was migrated to Scientific Scholar after the change of Publisher.

Abstract

Abstract

Physiological assessment of coronary artery stenosis added an element of certainty of benefit to the patient undergoing revascularization. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) was the gold standard, with good reproducibility, correlation with noninvasive inducible ischemia testing and, most importantly, clinical benefit. Increased usage also brought into focus some limitations with respect to achieving hyperemia, assessment of sequential stenoses, drift, multivessel disease, chronic total occlusion, fidelity and accuracy of measurement and, in some cases, cost of adenosine. This set the background for nonhyperemic testing which eliminates the need for drug administration and simplifies procedure vastly.

Keywords

fractional flow reserve
instant flow reserve
resting full-cycle ratio

Introduction

Physiological assessment of coronary artery stenosis added an element of certainty of benefit to the patient undergoing revascularization. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) was the gold standard, with good reproducibility, correlation with noninvasive inducible ischemia testing and, most importantly, clinical benefit.1 Increased usage also brought into focus some limitations with respect to achieving hyperemia, assessment of sequential stenosis, drift, multivessel disease, chronic total occlusion, fidelity and accuracy of measurement and, in some cases, cost of adenosine. This set the background for nonhyperemic testing which eliminates the need for drug administration and simplifies procedure vastly.

Instant flow reserve (iFr) when used for assessment of intermediate stenoses was established to achieve similar primary endpoint compared with FFR in DEFINE-FLAIR AND iFR SWEDEHEART trials, with correlation reaching 80% with FFR. This along with significant reduction in patient discomfort and cost opened up vistas for more indices or measurements, eliminating the need for hyperemia.2 3 iFR usage is sometimes limited by accurate tracking of wave form, and assumptions of flow and resistance at precise periods in diastole.

In comparison, resting full-cycle ratio (RFR) maximal relative pressure difference in the cardiac cycle is completely independent of the ECG and irrespective of systole or diastole, thus being an unbiased physiological assessment of coronary artery stenosis. The VALIDATE-RFR study by Svanerud et al examined the validation with FFR and iFR and found performance parameters matching these ratios and also unmasked interesting higher ratios in cardiac systole in up to 12% of cases, potentially opening up cases which would have been missed with iFR.4 The present study validates RFR with FFR in a group of patient’s representative of Indian practice, although in small number. The correlation between FFR and RFR values in this study reinforce the validity of RFR in providing sufficient discrimination power for assessment of coronary stenoses.

In Indian practice, the relatively easier availability of RFR may make it an acceptable and attractive substitute for RFR/FFR. Uniquely, RFR may not need a high-fidelity ECG and pressure wave analysis software which reduces the complexity of nonhyperemic testing. Of course, two cases in this study showed a dramatic discordance, which will remain a cause for concern. It would be useful to follow these cases and learn about their outcomes. Finally, despite the small sample size and even smaller patients requiring revascularization, this study sets the tone for future physiological lesion assessment among the Indian population.

Conflicts of Interest

None declared.

References

  1. , , , et al . FAME study investigators. fractional flow reserve versus angiography for guiding percutaneous coronary intervention. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(03):213-24. 15;
    [Google Scholar]
  2. , , , et al . Use of the instantaneous wave-free ratio or fractional flow reserve in PCI. N Engl J Med. 2017;376:1824-1834.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Götberg M, Christiansen EH, Gudmundsdottir IJ, est al. The iFR-SWEDEHEART investigators. N Engl J Med 2017;376:1813-182 Lindroos, M.D., et al., for the iFR-SWEDEHEART Investigators
  4. , , , et al . Validation of a novel non-hyperaemic index of coronary artery stenosis severity: the resting full-cycle ratio (VALIDATE RFR) study. EuroIntervention. 2018;14(07):806-814.
    [Google Scholar]

Fulltext Views
220

PDF downloads
161
View/Download PDF
Download Citations
BibTeX
RIS
Show Sections