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Original Article
01 (
02
); 011-016
doi:
10.1055/s-0038-1656398

Gender Difference in Risk Factor Profiles in Patients Referred for Coronary Angiogram

DM 1 year student, Department of Cardiology, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, India
Assistant Professor, Department of Cardiology, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, India
Address for correspondence drdeepthicardiology@gmail.com
Licence
This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
Disclaimer:
This article was originally published by Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Private Ltd. and was migrated to Scientific Scholar after the change of Publisher; therefore Scientific Scholar has no control over the quality or content of this article.

Abstract

Abstract

Background & Objective

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of death of women and men worldwide. Expected burden of athero-thrombotic CAD in India will surpass other regions of the world by the year 2020. It is better to control the risk factors for CAD to prevent this crisis. So, we want to study the gender difference in risk factor profiles in patients referred for coronary angiogram (CAG).

Materials & Methods

We did is a prospective observational study for risk factors profile in patients referred for CAG over 24 months (2013 to 2015) to the Nizam's institute of medical sciences. We collected the demographic, clinical and lab parameters including CAG finding in these patients.

Results

We analyzed the data of 3232 patients who undergone CAG during the study period. F: M::1081: 2151. 706 (65.3%) of female patients and 1312 (60.9%) of males patients had hypertension (HTN). 496 (45.9%) of females and 950 (44.1%) of males had Diabetes mellitus (DM). More males were presented with ACS (Acute coronary syndrome) whereas more females were presented with CSA (chronic stable angina). 203 (18.8%) female patients and 673 (31.3%) had lv dysfunction. Serum creatinine and Hemoglobin was low in females than males which were statistically significant. Total cholesterol was significantly higher in female CAD patients than male CAD patients (p=0.03). Both atherogenic (LDL) and protective (HDL) cholesterol were more in females than males with normal coronaries, but this difference was seen in patients with CAD in both sexes.

543 females and 551 males had normal coronaries. Overall prevalence of normal coronaries is more in females (p=0.00). Prevalence of diabetes showed a tendency more in females with normal coronaries than with males (p=0.063). Overall prevalence of risk factors in patients with normal coronaries is more in females compared to males (p=0.03). 782 (48.87%) males and 301(55.94%) females with CAD had diabetes. Prevalence of HTN (p=0.00) and DM (p=0.005) is more in females with CAD than males (p=0.00). Both DM & HTN was present in 647 (40.43%) of males and 273 (50.74%) of females, which is also is statistically significant.

Conclusion

Overall prevalence of normal coronaries is significantly more in females than males (p=0.00). Incidence of ACS is significantly more in males whereas CSA incidence more in females. Even though statistically significant more prevalence HTN in females, there was no statistical significant difference in prevalence of DM & HTN in between both sexes in patients with normal coronaries. But there was significantly high prevalence of DM & HTN in females with CAD compared to males.

Keywords

Coronary Angiogram
Gender differences

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